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Data Sources

Air Quality System
The Air Quality System (AQS) contains ambient air pollution data collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies. Data on criteria pollutants consist of air quality measurements collected by sensitive equipment at thousands of monitoring stations located across all 50 states, plus the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each monitor measures the concentration of a particular pollutant in the air. Monitoring data indicate the average pollutant concentration during a specified time interval, usually 1 hour or 24 hours. AQS also contains meteorological data, descriptive information about each monitoring station (including its geographic location and its operator), and data quality assurance or quality control information. The system is administered by EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Outreach and Information Division, located in Research Triangle Park, NC.

For more information, contact:
David Mintz
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Phone: 919-541-5224
Web site: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/airs/airsaqs

American Housing Survey
The American Housing Survey (AHS) was mandated by Congress in 1968 to provide data for evaluating progress toward “a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family.” It is the primary source of detailed information on housing in the United States and is used to generate a biennial report to Congress on the conditions of housing in the United States, among other reports. The survey is conducted for the Department of Housing and Urban Development by the U.S. Census Bureau. The AHS encompasses a national survey and 60 metropolitan surveys and is designed to collect data from the same housing units for each survey. The national survey, a representative sample of approximately 85,000 housing units beginning in 2011 (60,000 in prior years), is conducted biennially in odd-numbered years; the metropolitan surveys, representative samples of 4,500 housing units, are conducted in odd-numbered years on a 4-year cycle. The AHS collects data about the inventory and condition of housing in the United States and the demographics of its inhabitants. The survey provides detailed data on the types of housing in the United States and its characteristics and conditions; financial data on housing costs, utilities, mortgages, equity loans, and market value; and demographic data on family composition, income, education, and race and ethnicity. Information on neighborhood quality, walkability, public transportation and recent movers; the health and safety aspects of a home; accommodations for older and disabled household members; doubling up of households; working from home; and energy efficiency are collected in rotating supplements to the survey.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact: Carolyn Lynch U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development E-mail: Carolyn.Lynch@hud.gov Phone: 202-708-1060 Web site: http://www.census.gov/housing/ahs American Time Use Survey The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) is a nationally representative sample survey conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau. The ATUS measures how people living in the United States spend their time. Estimates show the kinds of activities people do and the time they spend doing them by sex, age, educational attainment, labor force status, and other characteristics, as well as by weekday and weekend day. ATUS respondents are interviewed one time about how they spent their time on the previous day, where they were, and whom they were with. The survey is a continuous survey, with interviews conducted nearly every day of the year and a sample that builds over time. About 13,000 members of the civilian noninstitutionalized population age 15 and over are interviewed each year.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
American Time Use Survey Staff
E-mail: atusinfo@bls.gov
Phone: 202-691-6339
Web site: http://www.bls.gov/tus

Consumer Expenditure Survey
The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) is conducted for the Bureau of Labor Statistics by the U.S. Census Bureau. The survey contains both a Diary component and an Interview component. Data are integrated before publication. The data presented in this chartbook are derived from the integrated data available on the CE website. The published data are weighted to reflect the U.S. population.

In the interview portion of the CE, respondents are interviewed once every 3 months for 5 consecutive quarters. Respondents report information on characteristics of the consumer unit, which is similar to a household, and expenditures during each interview. Income data are collected during the second and fifth interviews only.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
E-mail: CEXINFO@bls.gov
Phone: 202-691-6900
Web site: http://www.bls.gov/cex

Current Population Survey
The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a nationally representative sample survey of about 60,000 households conducted monthly for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census Bureau. The CPS base survey is the primary source of information on the labor force characteristics of the civilian noninstitutionalized population age 16 and over, including a comprehensive body of monthly data on the labor force, employment, unemployment, persons not in the labor force, hours of work, earnings, and other demographic and labor force characteristics.

In most months, CPS supplements provide additional demographic and social data. The Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) is the primary source of detailed information on income and poverty in the United States. The ASEC is used to generate the annual Population Profile of the United States, reports on geographical mobility and educational attainment, and is the primary source of detailed information on income and poverty in the United States. The ASEC, historically referred to as the March supplement, now is conducted in February, March, and April with a sample of about 100,000 addresses. The questionnaire asks about income from more than 50 sources and records up to 27 different income amounts, including receipt of many noncash benefits, such as food stamps and housing assistance.

Race and Hispanic origin: CPS respondents are asked to identify themselves as belonging to one or more of six racial groups (White, Black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race). People who responded to the question on race by indicating only one race are referred to as the race alone or single-race population, and individuals who chose more than one of the race categories are referred to as the Two or More Races population.

The CPS includes a separate question on Hispanic origin. People of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin could identify themselves as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. People of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

The 1994 redesign of the CPS had an impact on labor force participation rates for older men and women (See “Indicator 11: Participation in the Labor Force”). For more information on the effect of the redesign, see “The CPS After the Redesign: Refocusing the Economic Lens.”52

For more information regarding the CPS, its sampling structure, and estimation methodology, see “Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Error.”53

For more information, contact:
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Department of Labor
E-mail: Carolyn.Lynch@hud.gov
Phone: 202-691-6378
Web site: http://www.bls.gov/cps
Additional Web site: http://www.census.gov/cps

Decennial Census
Every 10 years, beginning with the first census in 1790, the United States government conducts a census, or count, of the entire population as mandated by the U.S. Constitution. For most data collections, Census Day was April 1st of the respective year.

For the 2010 Census, the Bureau devised a short-form questionnaire that asked for the age, sex, race, and ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic) of each household resident, his or her relationship to the person filling out the form, and whether the housing unit was rented or owned by a member of the household. The census long form, which for decades collected detailed socioeconomic and housing data from a sample of the population on education, housing, jobs, etc., was replaced by the American Community Survey (ACS), an ongoing survey of about 250,000 households per month that gathers largely the same data as its predecessor.

Race and Hispanic origin: Starting in Census 2000, and continuing in the 2010 Census, respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories to indicate their racial identities. People who responded to the question on race indicating only one of the six race categories (White, Black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race) are referred to as the race alone or single-race population. Individuals who chose more than one of the race categories are referred to as the Two or More Races population. The six single-race categories, which made up nearly 98 percent of all respondents, and the Two or More Races category sum to the total population. Because respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories in Census 2000 and the 2010 Census, these data are not directly comparable with data from the 1990 or earlier censuses.

As in earlier censuses, the 2010 Census included a separate question on Hispanic origin. In the 2010 Census, people of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin could identify themselves as Mexican, Mexican American or Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. People of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

For more information, contact:
Age and Special Populations Branch
Phone: 301-763-2378
Web site: http://2010.census.gov/2010census/

Health and Retirement Study
The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a national panel study conducted by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research under a cooperative agreement with the National Institute on Aging. In 1992, the study had an initial sample of over 12,600 people from the 1931–1941 birth cohort and their spouses. The HRS was joined in 1993 by a companion study, Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD), with a sample of 8,222 respondents (born before 1924 who were age 70 and over) and their spouses. In 1998, these two data collection efforts were combined into a single survey instrument and field period and were expanded through the addition of baseline interviews with two new birth cohorts: Children of the Depression Age (1924–1930) and War Babies (1942–1947). The HRS steady-state desig. calls for the addition of a new 6-year cohort of Americans entering their 50s every 6 years. So, the Early Boomer birth cohort (1948–1953) was added in 2004, the Mid “Baby Boomer” birth cohort (1954–1959) was added in 2010, and the Late “Baby Boomers” (1960–1965) will be added in 2016. The 2010 wave also included an expansion of the minority sample of Early and Mid “Baby Boomers”. Telephone follow-ups are conducted every second year, with proxy interviews after death. Beginning in 2006, one-half of the sample has an enhanced face-to-face interview that includes the collection of physical measures and biomarker collection. The Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) supplements the HRS with the specific aim of conducting a population-based study of dementia. A genome-wide scan is being completed on approximately 20,000 HRS participants by the end of 2012 that can support genetic and genomic studies.

The combined studies, which are collectively called HRS, have become a steady state sample that is representative of the entire U.S. population age 50 and over (excluding people who resided in a nursing home or other institutionalized setting at the time of sampling). HRS will follow respondents longitudinally until they die (including following people who move into a nursing home or other institutionalized setting).

The HRS is intended to provide data for researchers, policy analysts, and program planners who make major policy decisions that affect retirement, health insurance, saving, and economic well-being. The study is designed to explain the antecedents and consequences of retirement; examine the relationship between health, income, and wealth over time; examine life cycle patterns of wealth accumulation and consumption; monitor work disability; provide a rich source of interdisciplinary data, including linkages with administrative data; monitor transitions in physical, functional, and cognitive health in advanced old age; relate late-life changes in physical and cognitive health to patterns of spending down assets and income flows; relate changes in health to economic resources and intergenerational transfers; and examine how the mix and distribution of economic, family, and program resources affect key outcomes, including retirement, spending down assets, health declines, and institutionalization.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
Health and Retirement Study
E-mail: hrsquest@isr.umich.edu
Phone: 734-936-0314
Web site: http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/

Intercensal Population Estimates: 2000 to 2010
Intercensal population estimates are produced for the years between two decennial censuses when both the beginning and ending populations are known. They are produced by adjusting the existing time series of postcensal estimates for the entire decade to smooth the transition from one decennial census count to the next. They differ from the annually released postcensal estimates because they rely on mathematical formulae that redistribute the difference between the April 1 postcensal estimate and April 1 census count for the end of the decade across the postcensal estimates for that decade. For dates when both postcensal and intercensal estimates are available, intercensal estimates are preferred.

The 2000–2010 intercensal estimates reconcile the postcensal estimates with the 2010 Census counts and provide a consistent time series of population estimates that reflect the 2010 Census results. The 2000–2010 intercensal estimates were produced for the nation, states, and counties by demographic characteristics (age, sex, race and Hispanic origin).

For a more detailed discussion of the methods used to create the intercensal estimates, see

For more information, contact:
Population Estimates Branch
Phone: 301-763-2385
Web site: http://www.census.gov/popest/index.html

International Data Base
The U.S. Census Bureau produces the International Data Base (IDB), which includes regularly updated population estimates and projections for over 200 countries and areas. The series of estimates and projections provide a consistent set of demographic indicators, including population size and growth, mortality, fertility, and net migration. The IDB is accessible via the internet at www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb.

For more information, contact: Eurasia Branch, International Programs Center for Demographic and Economic Studies Phone: 301-763-1360 Web site: http://www.census.gov/population/international/data/

Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey
The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative sample of the Medicare population designed to help the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administer, monitor, and evaluate the Medicare program. The MCBS collects information on health care use, cost, and sources of payment; health insurance coverage; household composition; sociodemographic characteristics; health status and physical functioning; income and assets; access to care; satisfaction with care; usual source of care; and how beneficiaries get information about Medicare.

MCBS data enable CMS to determine sources of payment for all medical services used by Medicare beneficiaries, including copayments, deductibles, and noncovered services; develop reliable and current information on the use and cost of services not covered by Medicare (such as long-term care); ascertain all types of health insurance coverage and relate coverage to sources of payment; and monitor the financial effects of changes in the Medicare program. Additionally, the MCBS is the only source of multidimensional person-based information about the characteristics of the Medicare population and their access to and satisfaction with Medicare services and information about the Medicare program. The MCBS sample consists of Medicare enrollees in the community and in institutions.

The survey is conducted in three rounds per year, with each round being four months in length. MCBS has a multistage, stratified, random sample design and a rotating panel survey design. Each panel is followed for 12 interviews. In-person interviews are conducted using computer-assisted personal interviewing. A sample of approximately 16,000 people are interviewed in each round. However, because of the rotating panel design, only 12,000 people receive all three interviews in a given calendar year. Information collected in the survey is combined with information from CMS administrative data files and made available through public-use data files.

Race and Hispanic origin: The MCBS defines race as White, Black, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Other. People are allowed to choose more than one category. There is a separate question on whether the person is of Hispanic or Latino origin. The “Other” category in Table 30c consists of people who answered “no” to the Hispanic/Latino question and who answered something other than “White” or “Black” to the race question. People who answer with more than one racial category are assigned to the “Other” category.

For more information, contact:
MCBS Staff
E-mail: http://www.census.gov/popest/index.html
Web site: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/mcbs

The Research Data Assistance Center
E-mail: resdac@umn.edu
Phone: 888-973-7322
Web site: http://www.resdac.umn.edu

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) is an ongoing annual survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population that collects detailed information on health care use and expenditures (including sources of payment), health insurance, income, health status, access, and quality of care. MEPS, which began in 1996, is the third in a series of national probability surveys conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality on the financing and use of medical care in the United States. MEPS predecessor surveys are the National Medical Care Expenditure Survey (NMCES) conducted in 1977 and the National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) conducted in 1987. Each of the three surveys (i.e., NMCES, NMES, and MEPS) used multiple rounds of in-person data collection to elicit expenditures and sources of payments for each health care event experienced by household members during the calendar year. The current MEPS Household Component (HC) sample is drawn from respondents to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). To yield more complete information on health care spending and payment sources, followback surveys of health providers were conducted for a subsample of events in MEPS (and events in the MEPS predecessor surveys).

Since 1977, the structure of billing mechanism for medical services has grown more complex as a result of increasing penetration of managed care and health maintenance organizations and various cost-containment reimbursement mechanisms instituted by Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers. As a result, there has been substantial discussion about what constitutes an appropriate measure of health care expenditures. 54 Health care expenditures presented in this report refer to what is actually paid for health care services. More specifically, expenditures are defined as the sum of direct payments for care received, including out-of-pocket payments for care received. This definition of expenditures differs somewhat from what was used in the 1987 NMES, which used charges (rather than payments) as the fundamental expenditure construct. To improve comparability of estimates between the 1987 NMES and the 1996 and 2001 MEPS, the 1987 data presented in this report were adjusted using the method described by Zuvekas and Cohen.51 Adjustments to the 1977 data were considered unnecessary because virtually all of the discounting for health care services occurred after 1977 (essentially equating charges with payments in 1977).

A number of quality-related enhancements were made to the MEPS beginning in 2000, including the fielding of an annual adult self-administered questionnaire (SAQ). This questionnaire contains items on patient satisfaction and accountability measures from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®; previously known as the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans), the SF-12 physical and mental health assessment tool, EQ-5D EuroQol 5 dimensions with visual scale (2000–2003), and several attitude items. Starting in 2004, the K–6 Kessler mental health distress scale and the PH2 two-item depression scale were added to the SAQ.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information: MEPS Web site: http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb

National Health Interview Survey
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics since 1960, is a continuing nationwide sample survey in which data are collected during personal household interviews. NHIS is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian, noninstitutionalized, household population of the United States. A major strength of this survey lies in the ability to analyze health measures by many demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Sampling and interviewing are continuous throughout each year. The sampling plan follows a multistage area probability design that permits the representative sampling of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., college dormitories). The sampling plan is redesigned after every decennial census. The current NHIS sample design oversamples Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics.

Interviewers collect data on illnesses, injuries, impairments, and chronic conditions; activity limitation caused by chronic conditions; utilization of health services; and other health topics. Information is also obtained on personal, social, economic, and demographic characteristics, including race and ethnicity and health insurance status. The survey is reviewed each year, core questionnaire items are revised every 10–15 years (with major revisions occurring in 1982 and 1997), and special topics are added or deleted annually.

NHIS data are used to monitor trends in illness and disability, to track progress toward achieving national health objectives, to link behaviors to health outcomes, and to identify new health risks. NCHS has conducted a mortality linkage of NHIS with death certificate records from the National Death Index (NDI) to allow researchers to investigate the association of a variety of health factors with mortality, using the richness of the NHIS questionnaires. The NHIS Early Release Program publishes a periodic report on 15 Early Release measures prior to final data editing and final weighting to provide access to the most recent information. These estimates are then updated as each new quarter of NHIS data becomes available. In addition to these reports, preliminary microdata files containing selected NHIS variables are produced as part of the Early Release Program.

Race and Hispanic origin: Starting with data year 1999, race-specific estimates in NHIS are tabulated according to 1997 standards for Federal data on race and ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The single race categories for data from 1999 and later conform to 1997 standards and are for people who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 standards and included people who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race.

For more information, contact:
NHIS staff
E-mail: nhis@cdc.gov
Phone: 301-458-4901
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, is a family of cross-sectional surveys designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized civilian population through a combination of health interviews, physical examinations, and laboratory tests. The health interviews are conducted in respondent’s homes and health measurements are performed in specially-designed and equipped mobile examination centers, which travel to locations throughout the country. The study team consists of a physician, medical and health technicians, as well as dietary and health interviewers. Many of the study staff are bilingual (English/Spanish). All health information gathered is held in strict confidentiality. Each survey’s sample was selected using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability sampling design. Interviewers obtain information on personal and demographic characteristics, including age, household income, and race and ethnicity directly from sample persons (or their proxies). In addition, dietary intake data, biochemical tests, physical measurements, and clinical assessments are collected.

The NHANES program began in the early 1960s and has been conducted as a series of surveys focusing on different population groups or health topics and includes the following surveys conducted on a periodic basis through 1994: the first, second, and third National Health Examination Surveys (NHES I, 1960–1962; NHES II, 1963–1965; and NHES III, 1966–1970); and the first, second, and third National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES I, 1971–1974; NHANES II, 1976–1980; and NHANES III, 1988–1994). Beginning in 1999, NHANES became a continuous, annual survey, which allows increased flexibility in survey content. Since April 1999, NHANES has collected data every year from a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population, newborns and older. To produce reliable statistics, NHANES over-samples persons 60 and older, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics.

Information collected from the current survey is comparable with information collected in previous surveys. This allows health planners to detect the extent various health problems and risk factors have changed in the U.S. population over time. NHANES has collected data on chronic disease prevalence and conditions (including undiagnosed conditions) and on risk factors such as obesity, smoking, elevated serum cholesterol levels, hypertension, diet and nutritional status, immunization status, infectious disease prevalence, health insurance, and measures of environmental exposures. Other topics addressed include hearing, vision, mental health, anemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, oral health, pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements used, and physical fitness. Results from the survey allow scientists to determine the prevalence of major diseases and risk factors for diseases, assess nutritional status and its association with health promotion and disease prevention, and produce national references for such measurements as height, weight, and blood pressure.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov
Phone: 800-232-4636
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm

National Vital Statistics System
Through the National Vital Statistics System, the National Center for Health Statistics collects and publishes data on births, deaths, fetal deaths, and, prior to 1996, marriages and divorces occurring in the United States based on U.S. standard certificates. The Division of Vital Statistics obtains information on births and deaths from the registration offices of each of the 50 states, New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Mariana Islands. Geographic coverage for births and deaths has been complete since 1933. By law, the registration of deaths is the responsibility of the funeral director. The funeral director obtains demographic data for the death certificate from an informant. The physician in attendance at the death is required to certify the cause of death. Where death is from other than natural causes, a coroner or medical examiner may be required to examine the body and certify the cause of death. The mortality data file is a fundamental source of cause-of-death information by demographic characteristics and for geographic areas such as states. The mortality file is one of the few sources of comparable health-related data for smaller geographic areas in the United States and over a long time period. Mortality data can be used not only to present the characteristics of those dying in the United States but also to determine life expectancy and to compare mortality trends with other countries. Data in this report for the entire United States refer to events occurring within the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Race and Hispanic origin: Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on the death certificate. Therefore, data by race shown in Table 14b include people of Hispanic or non-Hispanic origin.

For more information, contact:
Mortality Statistics Branch
E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov
Phone: 800-232-4636
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm

Population Projections
The 2008 National Population Projections provide projections of resident population and demographic components of change (births, deaths, and net international migration) through 2050. Population projections are available by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin. The projections do not precisely agree with population estimates available elsewhere on the U.S. Census Bureau website for various reasons. For example, the 2008 National Projections are based on, and move forward from, Census 2000, whereas the estimates are updated annually. Where both estimates and projections are available for a given time reference, we recommend use of the population estimates as the measure of the current population. Below we provide a general description of the methods used to produce the 2008 National Population Projections.

The projections originate with a base population from Census 2000 and are produced using a cohort-component method. Many of the characteristics of the U.S. resident population, as measured by Census 2000, are preserved as demographic patterns that work their way through the projection period. Using the cohort-component method, the components of population change (births, deaths, and net international migration) are projected for each birth cohort (persons born in a given year). For each passing year, we advance the population one year of age. We update the new age categories using survival rates and levels of net international migration projected for the passing year. A new birth cohort is added to form the population under one year of age by applying projected age-specific fertility rates to the female population aged 15 to 49, and updating the new cohort for the effects of mortality and net international migration.

The assumptions for the components of change are based on time series analysis. Because of limited information about racial characteristics in the fertility and mortality historical series, the assumptions were first developed for three mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups: Hispanic origin (any race), non-Hispanic Black alone, and non-Hispanic all other races. These assumptions were then applied to their respective detailed racial and ethnic categories to project the population, which allows us to present the race categories described above.

For more information see:

Survey of the Aged, 1963
The major purpose of the 1963 Survey of the Aged was to measure the economic and social situations of a representative sample of all people age 62 and over in the United States in 1963 in order to serve the detailed information needs of the Social Security Administration (SSA). The survey included a wide range of questions on health insurance, medical care costs, income, assets and liabilities, labor force participation and work experience, housing and food expenses, and living arrangements.

The sample consisted of a representative subsample (one-half) of the Current Population Survey (CPS) sample and the full Quarterly Household Survey. Income was measured using answers to 17 questions about specific sources. Results from this survey have been combined with CPS results from 1971 to the present in an income time series produced by SSA.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
Brad Trenkamp
E-mail: brad.trenkamp@ssa.gov
Phone: 202-358-6116
Web site: http://www.socialsecurity.gov

Survey of Consumer Finances
The Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) is a triennial, cross-sectional, national survey of non-institutionalized Americans conducted by the Federal Reserve Board with the cooperation of the Statistics of Income Division of the Internal Revenue Service. It includes data on household assets and debts, use of financial services, income, demographics, and labor force participation. The survey is considered one of the best sources for wealth measurement because of its detailed treatment of assets and debts and because it oversamples wealthy households.55,56 The data for the panels of SCF used in this study were collected by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. The SCF uses a dual-frame sample consisting of both a standard random sample and a special over-sample of wealthier households in order to correct for the under-representation of high income families in the survey. It uses multiple imputation techniques to deal with missing data, which procedure results in the creation of five data sets called “implicates”. There are five implicates for every record. In the SCF, a household unit is divided into a “primary economic unit” (PEU)—the family—and everyone else in the household. The PEU is intended to be the economically dominant single person or couple (whether married or living together as partners) and all other persons in the household who are financially interdependent with the economically dominant person or couple.”57 The Indicator 10 data represent the PEU which we call households in the chart and discussion.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data in this report are shown for race is white or race is black for the head of the primary economic unit. Data are not shown by Hispanic origin.

For more information, contact:
Chris Angelov
E-mail: chris.angelov@ssa.gov
Phone: 202-358-6300

Survey of Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Aged, 1968
The 1968 Survey of Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Aged was conducted by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to provide continuing information on the socioeconomic status of the older population for program evaluation. Major issues addressed by the study include the adequacy of Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance benefit levels, the impact of certain Social Security provisions on the incomes of the older population, and the extent to which other sources of income are received by older Americans.

Data for the 1968 survey were obtained as a supplement to the Current Medicare Survey, which yields current estimates of health care services used and charges incurred by people covered by the hospital insurance and supplemental medical insurance programs. Supplemental questions covered work experience, household relationships, income, and assets. Income was measured using answers to 17 questions about specific sources. Results from this survey have been combined with results from the Current Population Survey from 1971 to the present in an income time series produced by SSA.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this survey are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact:
Brad Trenkamp
E-mail: brad.trenkamp@ssa.gov
Phone: 202-358-6116
Web site: http://www.socialsecurity.gov

Survey of Veteran Enrollees’ Health and Reliance Upon VA, 2010 The 2010 Survey of Veteran Enrollees’ Health and Reliance Upon VA (Survey of Enrollees) is the eighth in a series of surveys of Veteran enrollees conducted by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) within the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under multiyear Office of Management and Budget authority. Previous surveys of VHA-enrolled Veterans were conducted in 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2008. All eight VHA Surveys of Enrollees consisted of telephone interviews with stratified random samples of enrolled Veterans. Over time, the survey instrument has been modified to reflect VA management’s need for specific data on enrolled Veterans.

As with the other surveys in the series, the 2010 Survey of Enrollees sample was stratified by Veterans Integrated Service Network, enrollment priority, and type of enrollee (new or past user). Beginning in 2008, Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn enrollees were oversampled in order to provide more data about this group of Veterans.

Information gathered from the survey includes socioeconomic characteristics of the enrollee population, public and private insurance coverage, pharmaceutical use, tobacco use, health status measures, and future use of VA health care services by the Veteran enrollee population. The 2010 survey included a series of questions regarding Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The survey includes these questions periodically, and these questions were last included in the 2005 Survey of Enrollees.

Telephone interviews averaged 18 minutes in length. In the 2010 survey, interviews were conducted beginning on May 28, 2008, over a course of 12 weeks. Of the approximately 7.8 million eligible enrollees as of September 30, 2009, 42,920 completed interviews in the 2010 telephone survey.

The VHA Survey of Enrollees provides a fundamental source of data and information on enrollees that cannot be obtained in any other way except through surveys and yet are basic to many VHA activities. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide critical inputs into the VA Enrollee Health Care Projection Model enrollment, patient, and expenditure projections, and the Secretary’s enrollment level decision processes. Data from the surveys are also useful into a variety of strategic analysis areas related to budget, policy, or legislation.

Race and Hispanic origin: The report displays ethnicity and race data from this survey at the national level.

For more information, contact:
Marybeth Matthews
E-mail: Marybeth.Matthews@va.gov
Phone: 414-384-2000, ext. 42359
Web site: http://www4.va.gov/HEALTHPOLICYPLANNING/reports1.asp

Veteran Population Estimates and Projections
VA Office of the Chief Actuary (OACT) provided veteran population projection by key demographic characteristics such as age and gender as well as geographic areas. VetPop2007 was last updated using Census 2000 data, VA administrative data, and Department of Defense data. VetPop2011 will be released in Summer 2012.

Race and Hispanic origin: Data from this model are not shown by race and Hispanic origin in this report.

For more information, contact the Office of the Chief Actuary:
Lijia Guo
Office of the Chief Actuary
E-mail: lijia.guo@va.gov
Phone: 202-461-1049

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Last Modified: 12/31/1600 7:00:00 PM