X

Administration on Aging

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Census Bureau

Center for Medicare & Medicaid Service

Department of Housing & Urban Development

Department of Veterans Affairs

Employee Benefits Security Administration

Environmental Protection Agency

National Center for Health Statistics

National Institute on Aging

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning & Evaluation, HHS

Office of Management & Budget

Social Security Administration

Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration

Skip to the Main Content 


Detailed Tables: Economics


Indicator 7: Poverty

TABLE 7a:  PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION LIVING IN POVERTY, BY AGE GROUP, 1959-2002

  • PERCENT
Year 65 and over Under 18 18 to 64 65-74 75-84 85 and over
1959 35.2 27.3 17.0 na na na
1960 na 26.9 na na na na
1961 na 25.6 na na na na
1962 na 25.0 na na na na
1963 na 23.1 na na na na
1964 na 23.0 na na na na
1965 na 21.0 na na na na
1966 28.5 17.6 10.5 na na na
1967 29.5 16.6 10.0 na na na
1968 25.0 15.6 9.0 na na na
1969 25.3 14.0 8.7 na na na
1970 24.6 15.1 9.0 na na na
1971 21.6 15.3 9.3 na na na
1972 18.6 15.1 8.8 na na na
1973 16.3 14.4 8.3 na na na
1974 14.6 15.4 8.3 na na na
1975 15.3 17.1 9.2 na na na
1976 15.0 16.0 9.0 na na na
1977 14.1 16.2 8.8 na na na
1978 14.0 15.9 8.7 na na na
1979 15.2 16.4 8.9 na na na
1980 15.7 18.3 10.1 na na na
1981 15.3 20.0 11.1 na na na
1982 14.6 21.9 12.0 12.4 17.4 21.2
1983 13.8 22.3 12.4 11.9 16.7 21.3
1984 12.4 21.5 11.7 10.3 15.2 18.4
1985 12.6 20.7 11.3 10.6 15.3 18.7
1986 12.4 20.5 10.8 10.3 15.3 17.6
1987 12.5 20.3 10.6 9.9 16.0 18.9
1988 12.0 19.5 10.5 10.0 14.6 17.8
1989 11.4 19.6 10.2 8.8 14.6 18.4
1990 12.2 20.6 10.7 9.7 14.9 20.2
1991 12.4 21.8 11.4 10.6 14.0 18.9
1992 12.9 22.3 11.9 10.6 15.2 19.9
1993 12.2 22.7 12.4 10.0 14.1 19.7
1994 11.7 21.8 11.9 10.1 12.8 18.0
1995 10.5 20.8 11.4 8.6 12.3 15.7
1996 10.8 20.5 11.4 8.8 12.5 16.5
1997 10.5 19.9 10.9 9.2 11.3 15.7
1998 10.5 18.9 10.5 9.1 11.6 14.2
1999 9.7 17.1 10.1 8.8 9.8 14.2
2000 9.9 16.2 9.6 8.6 10.6 14.5
2001 10.1 16.3 10.1 9.2 10.4 13.9
2002 10.4 16.7 10.6 9.4 11.1 13.6

Data not available.
Note:  The poverty level is based on money income and does not include noncash benefits such as food stamps. Poverty thresholds reflect family size and composition and are adjusted each year using the annual average Consumer Price Index. For more detail, see U.S. Census Bureau, Series P-60, No.222.
Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1960-2003.

TABLE 7b:  PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION AGE 65 AND OVER LIVING IN POVERTY, BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS, 2002

  • MEN
Selected characteristic 65 and over   65 and over, living alone 65 and over, married couples 65-74 75 and over
Total 7.7   15.6 5.3 7.7 7.8
Non-Hispanic White alone 5.8   12.1 3.8 5.6 6.0
Black alone 18.1   30.2 11.3 18.1 18.2
Asian alone 6.8   (B) 7.1 4.9 10.6
Hispanic (of any race) 19.3   37.2 17 19.0 19.8
  • WOMEN
Selected characteristic 65 and over   65 and over, living alone 65 and over, married couples 65-74 75 and over
Total 12.4   20.5 4.9 10.8 14.1
Non-Hispanic White alone 10.1   17.4 3.7 8.0 12.2
Black alone 27.4   40.6 12.3 27.2 27.7
Asian alone 9.6   25.3 5.2 8.7 11.1
Hispanic (of any race) 23.0   47.1 14.9 21.2 25.6
  • BOTH SEXES
Selected characteristic 65 and over   65 and over, living alone 65 and over, married couples 65-74 75 and over
Total 10.4   19.2 5.1 9.4 11.7
Non-Hispanic White alone 8.3   16.1 3.8 6.9 9.8
Black alone 23.8   37.2 11.8 23.3 24.4
Asian alone 8.4   23.4 6.1 6.9 10.9
Hispanic (of any race) 21.4   44.1 16 20.2 23.1

(B)Base is not large enough to produce reliable results. Note:  The poverty level is based on money income and does not include noncash benefits such as food stamps. Poverty thresholds reflect family size and composition and are adjusted each year using the annual average Consumer Price Index. For more detail, see U.S. Census Bureau, Series P-60, No.222. The term "non-Hispanic white alone" is used to refer to people who reported being white and no other race and who are not Hispanic. The term "black alone" is used to refer to people who reported being black or African American and no other race, and the term "Asian alone" is used to refer to people who reported only Asian as their race. The use of single-race populations in this report does not imply that this is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The U.S. Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches.
Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2003.


Indicator 8:  Income

TABLE 8:  INCOME DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION AGE 65 AND OVER, 1974-2002

  • PERCENT
Year Poverty Low income Middle income High income
1974 14.6 34.6 32.6 18.2
1975 15.3 35.0 32.3 17.4
1976 15.0 34.7 31.8 18.5
1977 14.1 35.9 31.5 18.5
1978 14.0 33.4 34.2 18.5
1979 15.2 33.0 33.6 18.2
1980 15.7 33.5 32.4 18.4
1981 15.3 32.8 33.1 18.9
1982 14.6 31.4 33.3 20.7
1983 13.8 29.7 34.1 22.4
1984 12.4 30.2 33.8 23.6
1985 12.6 29.4 34.6 23.4
1986 12.4 28.4 34.4 24.8
1987 12.5 27.8 35.1 24.7
1988 12.0 28.4 34.5 25.1
1989 11.4 29.1 33.6 25.9
1990 12.2 27.0 35.2 25.6
1991 12.4 28.0 36.3 23.3
1992 12.9 28.6 35.6 22.9
1993 12.2 29.8 35.0 23.0
1994 11.7 29.5 35.6 23.2
1995 10.5 29.1 36.1 24.3
1996 10.8 29.5 34.7 25.1
1997 10.5 28.1 35.3 26.0
1998 10.5 26.8 35.3 27.5
1999 9.7 26.2 36.4 27.7
2000 9.9 27.5 35.5 27.1
2001 10.1 28.1 35.2 26.7
2002 10.4 28.0 35.3 26.2

Note:  The income categories are derived from the ratio of the family's income (or an unrelated individual's income) to the corresponding poverty threshold. Being in poverty is measured as income less than 100 percent of the poverty threshold. Low income is between 100 percent and 199 percent of the poverty threshold. Middle income is between 200 percent and 399 percent of the poverty threshold. High income is 400 percent or more of the poverty threshold.
Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1975-2003.


Indicator 9:  Sources of Income

TABLE 9a:  DISTRIBUTION OF SOURCES OF INCOME FOR THE POPULATION AGE 65 AND OVER, 1962-2002

YEAR TOTAL SOCIAL SECURITY ASSET INCOME PENSIONS EARNINGS OTHER
1962 100 31 16 9 28 16
1967 100 34 15 12 29 10
1976 100 39 18 16 23 4
1978 100 38 19 16 23 4
1980 100 39 22 16 19 4
1982 100 39 25 15 18 3
1984 100 38 28 15 16 3
1986 100 38 26 16 17 3
1988 100 38 25 17 17 3
1990 100 36 24 18 18 4
1992 100 40 21 20 17 2
1994 100 42 18 19 18 3
1996 100 40 18 19 20 3
1998 100 38 20 19 21 2
1999 100 38 19 19 21 3
2000 100 38 18 18 23 3
2001 100 39 16 18 24 3
2002 100 39 14 19 25 3

Reference Population  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement; 1963 Survey of the Aged; and 1968 Survey of Demographic and Economic Characteristics of the Aged.

TABLE 9b:  SOURCES OF INCOME FOR THE POPULATION AGE 65 AND OVER, BY INCOME QUINTILE, 2002

Income source Lowest fifth Second fifth Third fifth Fourth fifth Highest fifth
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Social Security 82.6 84.0 67.0 47.0 19.8
Asset income 2.4 3.7 7.4 9.8 18.9
Pensions 3.5 6.7 15.0 25.4 20.4
Earnings 1.1 2.3 7.0 14.7 38.4
Public assistance 8.9 1.6 1.0 0.2 0.1
Other 1.5 1.7 2.7 2.9 2.4

Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.


Indicator 10:  Net Worth

TABLE 10:  MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD NET WORTH OF HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD, BY SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS, IN 2001 DOLLARS, SELECTED YEARS 1984-2001

  • AGE OF FAMILY HEAD
SELECTED CHARACTERISTIC 1984 SE 1989 SE 1994 SE 1999 SE 2001 SE
65 and over $98,900 21.0 $107,800 15.2 $119,500 17.9 $160,700 32.8 $179,800 22.0
45-54 117,600 36.6 104,700 47.3 106,400 20.2 94,600 20.1 97,000 37.6
55-64 126,600 38.0 159,200 23.9 166,700 24.4 153,100 71.1 165,000 43.7
65-74 116,200 13.0 134,300 15.1 138,600 27.9 187,100 55.4 205,000 34.7
75 and over 85,200 48.2 89,300 28.2 98,800 17.0 136,100 23.3 144,000 23.3
  • MARITAL STATUS, FAMILY HEAD AGE 65 AND OVER
SELECTED CHARACTERISTIC 1984 SE 1989 SE 1994 SE 1999 SE 2001 SE
Married 155,100 47.6 196,400 33.7 219,600 40.3 250,900 66.6 291,000 42.5
Unmarried 69,900 9.7 65,700 9.1 73,900 7.5 96,300 22.7 100,800 16.2
  • RACE, FAMILY HEAD AGE 65 AND OVER
SELECTED CHARACTERISTIC 1984 SE 1989 SE 1994 SE 1999 SE 2001 SE
White 113,400 26.6 122,800 19.3 131,500 22.8 187,100 40.7 205,000 42.5
Black 25,600 4.8 33,100 6.7 37,000 9.3 29,800 8.8 41,000 16.2
  • EDUCATION, FAMILY HEAD AGE 65 AND OVER
SELECTED CHARACTERISTIC 1984 SE 1989 SE 1994 SE 1999 SE 2001 SE
No high school diploma 55,200 7.7 54,700 9.4 59,800 8.8 58,500 53.2 57,300 15.3
High school diploma only 136,900 21.4 145,500 11.5 129,100 10.4 170,100 17.9 172,000 42.1
Some college or more 216,500 116 249,900 71.1 268,900 73.3 320,000 87.4 360,500 48.5

Note:  Median net worth is calculated using sample weights. Tests of statistical significance were performed on the mean household net worth. From 1984 to 1994, net equity in homes and nonhousing assets was divided into six categories: other real estate and vehicles; farm or business ownership; stocks, mutual funds, investment trusts, and stocks held in IRAs; checking and savings accounts, CDs, treasury bills, savings bonds and liquid assets in IRAs; bonds, trusts, life insurance, and other assets; and other debts. Starting in 1999, IRAs were measured as a separate category. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) net worth data do not include pension wealth. This excludes private defined-contribution and defined-benefit plans as well as "left"s to Social Security wealth. See Appendix B for the definition of race and ethnicity in the PSID.
Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population.
Source:  Panel Study of Income Dynamics.


Indicator 11:  Participation in the Labor Force

TABLE 11:  LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OF PEOPLE AGE 55 AND OVER, BY AGE GROUP AND SEX, ANNUAL AVERAGES, 1963-2003

  • MEN (PERCENT)
Year 55-61 62-64 65-69 70 and over
1963 89.9 75.8 40.9 20.8
1964 89.5 74.6 42.6 19.5
1965 88.8 73.2 43.0 19.1
1966 88.6 73.0 42.7 17.9
1967 88.5 72.7 43.4 17.6
1968 88.4 72.6 43.1 17.9
1969 88.0 70.2 42.3 18.0
1970 87.7 69.4 41.6 17.6
1971 86.9 68.4 39.4 16.9
1972 85.6 66.3 36.8 16.6
1973 84.0 62.4 34.1 15.6
1974 83.4 60.8 32.9 15.5
1975 81.9 58.6 31.7 15.0
1976 81.1 56.1 29.3 14.2
1977 80.9 54.6 29.4 13.9
1978 80.3 54.0 30.1 14.2
1979 79.5 54.3 29.6 13.8
1980 79.1 52.6 28.5 13.1
1981 78.4 49.4 27.8 12.5
1982 78.5 48.0 26.9 12.2
1983 77.7 47.7 26.1 12.2
1984 76.9 47.5 24.6 11.4
1985 76.6 46.1 24.4 10.5
1986 75.8 45.8 25.0 10.4
1987 76.3 46.0 25.8 10.5
1988 75.8 45.4 25.8 10.9
1989 76.3 45.3 26.1 10.9
1990 76.7 46.5 26.0 10.7
1991 76.1 45.5 25.1 10.5
1992 75.7 46.2 26.0 10.7
1993 74.9 46.1 25.4 10.3
1994 73.8 45.1 26.8 11.7
1995 74.3 45.0 27.0 11.6
1996 74.8 45.7 27.5 11.5
1997 75.4 46.2 28.4 11.6
1998 75.5 47.3 28.0 11.1
1999 75.4 46.9 28.5 11.7
2000 74.3 47.0 30.3 12.0
2001 74.9 48.2 30.2 12.1
2002 75.4 50.4 32.2 11.5
2003 74.9 49.6 32.8 12.3
  • WOMEN (PERCENt)
Year 55-61 62-64 65-69 70 and over
1963 43.7 28.8 16.5 5.9
1964 44.5 28.5 17.5 6.2
1965 45.3 29.5 17.4 6.1
1966 45.5 31.6 17.0 5.8
1967 46.4 31.5 17.0 5.8
1968 46.2 32.1 17.0 5.8
1969 47.3 31.6 17.3 6.1
1970 47.0 32.3 17.3 5.7
1971 47.0 31.7 17.0 5.6
1972 46.4 30.9 17.0 5.4
1973 45.7 29.2 15.9 5.3
1974 45.3 28.9 14.4 4.8
1975 45.6 28.9 14.5 4.8
1976 45.9 28.3 14.9 4.6
1977 45.7 28.5 14.5 4.6
1978 46.2 28.5 14.9 4.8
1979 46.6 28.8 15.3 4.6
1980 46.1 28.5 15.1 4.5
1981 46.6 27.6 14.9 4.6
1982 46.9 28.5 14.9 4.5
1983 46.4 29.1 14.7 4.5
1984 47.1 28.8 14.2 4.4
1985 47.4 28.7 13.5 4.3
1986 48.1 28.5 14.3 4.1
1987 48.9 27.8 14.3 4.1
1988 49.9 28.5 15.4 4.4
1989 51.4 30.3 16.4 4.6
1990 51.7 30.7 17.0 4.7
1991 52.1 29.3 17.0 4.7
1992 53.6 30.5 16.2 4.8
1993 53.8 31.7 16.1 4.7
1994 55.5 33.1 17.9 5.5
1995 55.9 32.6 17.5 5.3
1996 56.4 31.8 17.2 5.2
1997 57.3 33.6 17.6 5.1
1998 57.6 33.3 17.8 5.2
1999 57.9 33.7 18.4 5.5
2000 58.3 34.1 19.5 5.8
2001 58.9 36.7 20.0 5.9
2002 61.1 37.6 20.7 6.0
2003 62.5 38.6 22.7 6.4

Reference Population:  These data refer to the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey.


Indicator 12:  Housing Expenditures

TABLE 12:  TOTAL ANNUAL EXPENDITURES ALLOCATED TO HOUSING COSTS IN HOUSEHOLDS HEADED BY PEOPLE AGE 65 AND OVER, BY INCOME LEVEL, SELECTED YEARS 1987-2002

  • Proportion of total expenditures spent on housing (percent)
Income level 1987 1989 1992 1994 1996 1998 2002
Lowest fifth 33.4 34.8 37.5 34.5 36.2 36.0 40.3
Second fifth 33.0 31.4 32.5 35.5 34.0 35.3 35.3
Third Fifth 28.8 28.3 30.0 26.3 29.8 28.7 32.6
Fourth fifth 26.7 23.9 26.1 26.4 28.9 28.0 29.1
Highest fifth 20.5 21.8 23.3 23.6 24.1 25.8 28.0
  • Average expenditures on housing (in dollars)
Income level 1987 1989 1992 1994 1996 1998 2002
Lowest fifth 2,842 3,076 3,813 3,919 4,309 4,686 $5,116
Second fifth 3,410 3,648 4,161 4,885 4,891 5,743 6,276
Third fifth 3,525 4,232 4,853 4,834 5,753 5,930 7,220
Fourth fifth 4,186 4,739 5,737 6,575 6,826 7,147 7,736
Highest fifth 5,403 7,010 7,625 8,925 9,791 10,119 11,544
  • Average total expenditures (in dollars)
Income level 1987 1989 1992 1994 1996 1998 2002
Lowest fifth 8,502 8,835 10,172 11,375 11,900 $13,032 $12,688
Second fifth 10,322 11,617 12,784 13,747 14,738 16,252 17,768
Third fifth 12,232 14,965 16,189 18,401 19,315 20,696 22,132
Fourth fifth 15,676 19,788 22,011 24,894 23,647 25,509 26,548
Highest fifth 26,301 32,117 32,659 37,757 40,602 39,170 41,204

Note:  For the purposes of this report, housing is defined as “basic housing” (i.e., shelter and utilities).  Shelter includes payments for mortgage interest and charges; property taxes; maintenance, repairs, insurance, and other expenses; rent; rent as pay (reduced or free rent for a unit as a form of pay); and maintenance, insurance, and other expenses for renters.  “Basic housing” is defined to include utilities because some renters have these costs included in their rent; furthermore, they are a cost that most consumer units incur to provide a tolerable living environment, whether it be for heating and cooling, cooking, or lighting. Levels/income fifths are used to define five levels of income. In this analysis, the term "household" is used in place of the term "consumer unit." A consumer unit is used to describe members of a household related by blood, marriage, adoption, or other legal arrangement; single people who are living alone or sharing a household with others but who are financially independent; or two or more people living together who share responsibility for at least two of three major types of expenses (food, housing, and other expenses). The income distribution was determined for the subset of all consumer units in which the reference person was age 65 or over.
Reference Population  These data refer to the civilian non-institutionalized population.
Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey.

Back to Menu

Last Modified: 12/31/1600 7:00:00 PM